CLEPA position on “short range” V2V, V2P and V2I within C-ITS communication technologies (5.9 GHz frequency band)
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) represent “advanced applications aiming to provide innovative services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated and ‘smarter’ use of transport networks”.
ITS applications consist of the use of “short range” communication technologies for establishing communication between vehicles (V2V) from same or different manufacturers, infrastructure (V2I) and pedestrian (V2P).
The success of ITS depends on an interference free environment, seamless communications and its fast and broad availability to all road users. This is a safety related application that will save lives: to this extent technology neutrality, coexistence, interoperability and compatibility are the leading principles.
This paper addresses the most relevant issues concerning the operation of short range direct communication technologies in the 5.9 GHz frequency.
CLEPA supports technology openness. Spectrum regulation neutrality shall be maintained not to endanger DSRC/V2X ITS-G5, C-V2X/LTE-V2X, 5G, or prospective future technologies.
In the mandate of the Radio Spectrum Committee to CEPT (RSCOM17-26, the European Commission noted: ”In line with the EU principle of technology neutrality in spectrum regulation, the existing Decision 2008/671/EC, already allows the use of any technology that falls within the definition of ITS”.
Also Decision 676/2002/EC, underlines the need of efficient spectrum use. Furthermore, Decision 243/2012/EU, sets through spectrum policy the framework for efficient spectrum use, technology neutrality and avoidance of harmful interference.
Up to now two communication technologies can be considered for short range:
- V2X ITS-G5 / IEEE802.11p, called in U.S. DSRC Wave / IEEE802.11p
- LTE-V2X release 14
For IEEE802.11p a group in IEEE started studying how to enhance the technology with NGV (new generation V2X). LTE-V2X will be further improved in 3GPP towards release 15 and then 16. New Radio V2X (NR-V2X) is synonym to 5G-V2X and starts development in 3GPP with release 16. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) groups the LTE-V2X family and NR-V2X together.
Modifying the existing technology neutral spectrum regulation to become technology specific would prevent the deployment of any other technology and therefore impede the enhancement of future C-ITS safety applications.
“Vehicle to Vehicle”, “Vehicle to Infrastructure” and “Vehicle to pedestrian” “safety related applications” shall remain in the designated C-ITS 5.9 GHz band.
Specific spectrum band in the 5.9GHz is set aside for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) communication to improve traffic safety applications whose aim is to reduce the number of traffic fatalities or accidents (Decision 2008/671/EC, ECC Decision 2008(01) and ECC Recommendation 2008(01). This was reconfirmed by the European strategy on Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems C-ITS (COM (2016)766) which designated 5.9 GHz for C-ITS.
Due to the scarcity of the spectrum band, V2V, V2I and V2P should use the 5.9GHz band for traffic safety applications, while Vehicle to Network (V2N) should use IMT bands.
Additional spectrum for ITS is needed for future safety short range direct communication.
As of today it can be estimated that the seven 10 MHz ITS channels (70MHz across the 5.9GHz band) are sufficient and necessary for the foreseeable “beyond Day-1” applications (e.g. Car2Car V2X list), under the assumption that a single use case will be implemented by one dedicated technology. An ETSI contribution to CEPT WG-FM proves that 70 MHz in total are not enough to accommodate the deployment of currently envisioned services. Any further enhancement of C-ITS towards automated driving will imply higher levels of functional and operational safety requiring redundant communications on separated frequency bands, as indicated in the Car2Car position paper.
CLEPA does not support a segmentation and segregation of the ITS band 5855 – 5925 MHz in the spectrum regulation.
The EU Commission mandated CEPT to study the extension of the Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) safety-related band at 5.9 GHz taking into account existing V2X ITS-G5, LTE-V2X and urban rail (RSCOM 17-26)2. This mandate explicitly sets the condition that: “it should not result in segmentation and segregation of the band. The principle of equal access to shared spectrum shall be applied taking into account the need to avoid harmful interference and the need for reliable safety-related operation in the whole band”.
A spectrum regulation that would segment the spectrum band cannot be technology neutral: technology A would be considered to use one part of the band and technology B to use another part. A new technology C could not use the band.
Segmenting and segregating the spectrum band would impede new technologies to share the spectrum.
CLEPA does not support sharing the ITS 5.9 GHz band with RLAN. RLAN can harm the ITS performances.
Some studies contributing to CEPT PTD and CEPT CPG have proven that RLAN (e.g. WLAN communication) sharing the ITS band would lead to harmful interference to safety ITS applications. CEPT agreed with this conclusion, as explained in the draft CEPT brief 1.16.
Any technology accessing the ITS 5.9 GHz band has to prove coexistence with existing IEEE 802.11p (ITS-G5).
Coexistence means that any technology does not harmfully interfere with existing ITS-G5 technology using that frequency band.
In the context of spectrum regulation in the 5.9 GHz, the technology already used in the market receives such a protection status, that any newcomer has to prove not to interfere the existing one.
This is reflected in the EU Radio Spectrum Committee mandate to CEPT (RSCOM17-26)2: “…study measures which allow coexistence of LTE-V2X and Urban Rail ITS ([…]) with existing ETSI ITS-G5 within the 5 875-5 925 MHz frequency band”.
Short range ITS-G5 V2X is already deployed in the EU single market. C-Roads Member States have regionally equipped ITS infrastructure with short range ITS-G5, Renault and PSA have produced thousands of vehicles with ITS-G5. In addition, Volkswagen has announced to equip V2X (ITS-G5) as a standard feature on the mass market production of all volume models from 2019.
Any new coming technology should not create harmful interference to existing technology.
CLEPA supports interoperability and compatibility of C-ITS.
ITS Directive 2010/40/EU sets the legal framework for Cooperative ITS (C-ITS) implementation in Europe, to ensure a “coordinated and coherent deployment and use of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) within the Union, in particular across the borders between the Member States, and sets out the general conditions necessary for that purpose”. C-ITS needs to be based on interoperable and compatible communication, without that, vehicles will not be able to understand the safety messages sent to/from each other and to/from the road infrastructure. Within the scope of this Directive:
- “interoperability” means the capacity of systems and the underlying business processes to exchange data and to share information and knowledge
- “compatibility” means the general ability of a device or system to work with another device or system without modification
Interoperability and compatibility are the base for a safe and efficient C-ITS deployment across the whole European Union single market.
Click on the link below to download the position paper: 2018-12-CLEPA position 5.9GHz 20180926 FINAL
CLEPA, the European Association of Automotive Suppliers, represents over 3.000 companies supplying state-of-the-art components and innovative technology for safe, smart and sustainable mobility, investing over 22 billion euros yearly in research and development. Automotive suppliers in Europe employ nearly five million people across the continent.
○ Some 12 million people are employed in the European automotive industry
○ European automotive suppliers directly employ 5 million people
○ European automotive suppliers invest over €22bn in RDI per year. They are the biggest private investor into research and innovation
○ Per year, 18 million vehicles are manufactured in Europe, contributing to the stability and growth of the European economy
In: Connectivity & Automation